Kristijonas Donelaitis was a Prussian Lithuanian poet and Lutheran pastor. He lived and worked in Lithuania Minor, a territory in the Kingdom of Prussia, that had a sizable Lithuanian-speaking minority. He wrote the first classic Lithuanian language poem, The Seasons (Lithuanian: Metai). Kristijonas Donelaitis’ Metai in der Tradi- tion nationaler Epen in Europa / Kristijono Donelaičio Metai. Europos nacionalinių epų tradicijoje. parengė Mikas Vaicekauskas, Vilnius: Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas,. , + CD Mp3: Kristijonas Donelaitis, Metai, skaito Rolandas Kazlas, Vilnius.
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It is a common consensus that Donelaitis started writing the fables about The Seasons was written about — It consists of four parts: There also remain three poems in German: Apart from Donelaitis’ fictional literature and poetry, there remain his other writings: There is also indication that Donelaitis wrote psalms or translated them into Lithuanian. Later Rhesa gave the manuscripts that had come into his keeping to the Prussian Privy State Archives. All extant Donelaitis’ manuscripts are now kept in the Institute of Lithuanian Literature and Folklore.
Kristijonas Donelaitis embarked on his creative path by writing fables. Six of them survive today. The features plots, characters, unfolding of narrative etc. Two fables — “The Dog at the Fair” and “Fable of the Dung Beetle” — are held to be original as they do not display such similarities. In his fables, Donelaitis created his own characters and adapted narrative situations to fit the environment known to his readers.
The fables also have features donwlaitis an epic: These are original pieces, marked by its own distinctive style, versification hexameter and arrangement of the material.
The “vernacular” Lithuanian of the poem is characterized by rhetoricism, dynamic vocabulary, and balance of the epical and the lyrical. Donelaitis masterfully and very realistically presents the everyday life of serfs in Lithuania Minor: The target audience of the poem consisted of Donelaitis’ peasant parishioners, who should not have had any trouble understanding the poem, given its topic, style and language, and of his closest friends, who were also cognisant of this reality.
Descriptions of nature make a considerable part of the poem, since nature is part of the world created by God. Through images of nature, the author shows the mightiness and wisdom of God, and the variety of the created world. The characters themselves, peasants inhabiting nature, are also part of God’s creation. Donelaitis conveys the sameness of peasants’ everyday life, where nothing new ever occurs.
He only shows that which happens perpetually, which is usual, which is important for everyone. In this way the poem encompasses the entirety of the world created by Vonelaitis, wherein everything transpires in accordance with the creator’s will and plan.
There is no evidence that he would personally have attempted to publish any of his works.
It was Rhesa who eventually gave to the Lithuanian original of the poem the title metau The Seasons. His edition had numerous editor’s cuts and corrections — the poem was shortened by lines. Rhesa also was the first to translate the poem into German.
The fables were first published by the very same Rhesa in in the book Aesop or Tales Aisopas arba Pasakos ; they were later republished in many publications and krietijonas of Donelaitis’ writings.
August Schleicher —Jena University professor, in published a linguistic publication, Christian Donaleitis’ Lithuanian Poetry Christian Donaleitis Litauische Dichtungenmostly intended for studies in comparative linguistics. He also made a second translation of The Seasons into German. Of these publications, several deserve a special notice.
The preparation of the text was based on Donelaitis’ autographs, transcripts and Nesselmann’s edition; the resulting redaction was adapted for a broader audience and for school use. This edition of The Seasons is also remarkable as the first one to have illustrations, which were made by Vytautas Kazimieras Jonynas — The edition was reprinted inand The Writings published in are thought of as the most complete and the most meticulously prepared edition of Donelaitis’ work.
Meanwhile, the ‘s edition was intended for a wider public. Vytautas Vitkauskas, its editor, seeked to present Donelaitis’ text in a more authentic form and to preserve original dialect forms; this redaction was republished in,and Only one copy of the book mrtai known to survive.
Discovered init lacks the beginning and the end. Kristijonas Donelaitis is thought to kristijonaz translator of this booklet, rather than its author. Donelaitis ; In gleichem Versmaass ins Dt.
The first scientific edition krietijonas Donelaitis’ writings in the original language, prepared for publication by a German linguist, Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences August Schleicher kristijoonas and published in in St.
Kristijonas Donelaitis : Metai | About text |
Petersburg by the printing house of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The edition includes the following works by Donelaitis: Spauda ir kaszta Martyno Jankaus, The text of the first part of “The Seasons”, prepared for publication and published as a separate book mftai Martynas Jankus — in in Tilsit.
The ruins of the Lochstedt castle in the aftermath of a battle. It was in this castle that Povilas Pakarklis, during an archaeographic expedition organized by the Academy of Sciences of LSSR, found a manuscript of “The Seasons”, several manuscripts of Professor Ludwig Rhesa and numerous old publications in Lithuanian.
This is a sheaf of memoirs by Povilas Pakarklis —prominent Lithuanian jurist, historian and ethnologist, wherein he discloses the history of discovering “The Seasons”. Towards the end of World War II, scientists and cultural workers still in the country attempted to collect and to save from destruction documents of scientific and cultural significance. He relentlessly seeked to obtain from the authorities permission to go to the former East Prussia. Pakarklis, and on his suggestion, J.
Kruopas, linguist from Vilnius University, in September were both included into an archaeographic expedition by the Academy of Sciences of LSSR that was being sent to Kaliningrad with a view to survey the university, archives, libraries and other cultural and scientific institutions. At the Lochstedt castle situated km from Kaliningrad the search group found “The Seasons” in manuscript, several manuscripts of Professor Ludwig Rhesa and numerous old publications in Lithuanian.
The majority of Lituanistic materials found in and salvaged from the former East Prussia is kept in the Wroblewski Library of the Academy of Sciences in Vilnius. The manuscript of “The Seasons” was handed over to the then Institute of Lithuanian Language and Literature, and at present it is held in the manuscript collection of the Institute of Lithuanian Literature and Folklore. Donelaitis und seine dichterischen Gestalten: Donelaitis with the Characters of his Poem “The Seasons” ].
Lietuvos aidas, nr. The title page of “Summer Toil”. Miluko, Shenandoah, Pa. Fictional texts are taken from Schleicher’s edition with the omission of the “Fable of the Dung Beetle”.
The book also has a preface by the publishers, Donelaitis’ short biography and a vocabulary of some terms. The first edition of complete with no omissions stress-marked texts by Donelaitis.
The first sheet, as noted on the title leaf, was printed in This publication date is given on the book’s cover. A shortened version of the poem “The Seasons” about lines cutand four fables: Life and writings of Duonelaitis: Society of Lithuania Minor in the 18th century; 2. Life of Duonelaitis; 4. Works of Duonelaitis; 5. Reading Duonelaitis’ verse; 6.
Language of “The Seasons” and its adornments; 7. Nature of “The Seasons”; 8.
People in “The Seasons”; 9. Social and literary significance of “The Seasons”; II. Commentaries on Duonelaitis’ language.
The third edition compiled by pulling together Donelaitis’ writings and the addendum published in A new edition of “The Seasons” compiled by literature scholar Juozas Brazaitis — is a representational publication illustrated with wooden engravings by Vytautas Kazimieras Jonynas — and published in in Kaunas on the initiative of the Book Publishing Commission at the Ministry for Education.
The book was prepared for publication based on the autograph and on Holfeldt’s transcript with a view to preserving the authenticity of the text.
The publication includes three facsimiles fragments of Donelaitis’ autographs and Holfeldt’s fragmentsthe compiler’s article with a discussion of earlier editions of “The Seasons”, a vocabulary and the contents of the poem’s parts.
Another edition of Brazaitis’ redaction, supplemented by his article ” The poet of buras culture”. The new photographed edition of the printing, published in Baden-Baden, Germany, in Drazdauskas ; dailininkas A. An incomplete collection of Donelaitis’ works, published in in Kaunas on the basis of the ‘s and ‘s editions, with an introductory article by Kostas Korsakas —”Donelaitis and his “The Seasons””.
A facsimile edition of Donelaitis’ autographs, which was compiled in the Institute of the Lithuanian Language and Literature in and for the first time contained facsimiles of the manuscripts of “Spring Joys”, “Summer Toil”, “The Continuation” “Fortsetzung”and of two letters.
It was prepared for publication, with a preface and textological commentaries, by literature scholar Leonas Gineitis — Donelaitis ; [dailininkas V. The first edition in “The Pupil’s Library Series” A children’s edition illustrated by D. Vaga, — p. A comprehensive academic edition of Donelaitis’ writings, prepared by the scientific staff of the Institute of Lithuanian Literature and Folklore and published in It contains the entirety of Donelaitis’ oeuvre: The edition offers both authentic texts and those adapted according to the usage norms of the modern language.
It also includes extensive commentaries. Metai [ The Seasons ]: A republishing of the pre-war representational edition of “The Seasons” illustrated by the emigree artist Vytautas Kazimieras Jonynas — Published to mark the th anniversary of Donelaitis’ birth.