Entradas sobre Burseraceae escritas por plantasdecolombia. Bursera simaruba – Burseraceae Búsqueda Rápida – Familia, género o especie. Buscar. Article: La familia Burseraceae en el estado de Aguascalientes, México. Add this to your Mendeley library Report an error. Summary; Details; MODS; BibTeX. Abstract. An account of the species of trees and shrubs of the family Burseraceae in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico is presented. It includes a key for the.
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Clarified higher-level phylogenetic relationships open hurseraceae door to more refined systematics of clades without having to worry if they are para- or polyphyletic. A well-studied group can also be an excellent testing ground burseraceeae new or under-utilized tools and independent data sets. Research on the Burseraceae, with over taxa in the Amazon, is rapidly arriving at the point where the family can be used effectively both as a tool for conservation and as a model for studying the processes influencing the origin and maintenance of high diversity in the Amazonian flora.
First, we are resolving higher-level phylogenies as well as species-level taxonomy in various clades, allowing comparative approaches. The family is sufficiently large to provide adequate statistical power for hypothesis testing and yet small enough to achieve the necessary sampling intensity, allowing us to assess the relative impacts of morphological innovation, ecological opportunity, and biogeographic events on the diversification of Burseraceae and related groups.
Amazonia, Anacardiaceae, burseraxeae, phylogeny. A well-studied group of plants can serve as a model for many different avenues of biological investigation, if the group’s state of the art includes three main components: For example, Beiselia mexicana Forman was recently proposed to constitute a distinct tribe basal to burseraceea rest of the Burseraceae Thulin et al.
Clarified higher-level phylogenetic relationships open the door to more refined systematics of clades without having to worry if they are para- or polyphyletic a big obstacle for beginning graduate students in plant systematics.
Well-supported phylogenies can be used to test hypotheses for a spectrum of issues, such as the origins and affinities of lineages, e. A well-studied group can also be an excellent testing ground for new or under-utilized tools and independent data sets; as an example of this, to date we have prepared permanently mounted leaf clearings of species of tribe Protieae in preparation for a detailed analysis of the value of leaf architecture for Burseraceae systematics see Ellis et al.
Addressing these issues requires a densely sampled, well-supported phylogeny and a detailed study of the morphology and biogeography of the species. To maximize the utility of these studies, one must also have large numbers of specimens data-based and geo-referenced. We cannot understand Amazonian Burseraceae or any other group, for that matter famlia all we know about is the Burseraceae of Amazonia. Comprehensive knowledge of a group of plants is important if only to know which names to use, i.
For example, if it were determined that what are called Protium in Asia and in Amazonia are not monophyletic i. Similarly, if the Amazonian Protium puncticulatum J. These issues extending beyond the limits of Amazonia also go well beyond nomenclature, because they affect conclusions about diversity, endemism, biogeography, and conservation. The following discusses the current status of research on the family on several scales as it becomes one of the better studied families in Amazonia. The Burseraceae comprise familla.
The latter four genera occur on at least two continents, and four genera in the family each have more than species: ProtiumCommiphoraBurseraand Canarium Daly et al.
As an example, in a lowland forest in Sarawak, birseraceae Burseraceae comprised the third most important tree family in relative density, second in basal area, and ninth in relative diversity, and it accounted for five of top 20 species in relative frequency Lee et al. The family is remarkable for having a high number of congeners in limited areas.
As examples, there are 48 species of Bursera in the state of Guerrero, Mexico Rzedowski et al. Until recently, the subfamilial classification of the Burseraceae was in a fascinating state of flux, but as molecular systematic investigations progress and the results are reconciled with morphology, the Mexican endemic Beiselia is indicated as a monotypic tribe basal to the rest of the family Fig. In tribe Bursereae, Bursera moves toward absorbing Commiphoraas recent phylogenetic analyses are revealing new patterns within traditional lineages, with Bursera subgenus Elaphrium Jacq.
There is surprising evidence for B. Molecular phylogeny and to a lesser extent morphology are changing the composition and structure of tribe Canarieae.
Dacryodes is pantropical as currently circumscribed but may prove to be polyphyletic A. With the removal of Trattinnickia Willd. The remainder of the tribe comprises two small genera, Crepidospermum 6 species and Tetragastris The Protieae are examined in more detail below.
Molecular-based Phylogeny and Biogeographical Reconstruction. A well-sampled phylogeny can provide insights into the historical biogeography of a lineage. For example, work in the Malphigiaceae has revealed bureraceae the oldest members of the family are African and that colonization of South America occurred later, via a land bridge in the Miocene Davis et al.
The Burseraceae are also thought to be a lineage that has migrated between the Old and New World via a Boreotropical landbridge Weeks et al.
Fossils of the Protieae, Canariae and Bursereae have been found in London and Florissant, Colorado, even though those lineages no longer occur in the Northern Hemisphere outside familka the tropics. Reconstructions of biogeography using the phylogeny of the Burseraceae points to a Northern Hemisphere origin with subsequent migrations into Africa, Asia and the New World Tropics Weeks et al.
As for the Protieae, our phylogeny in Figure 2 reveals a similar story. Subsequent cooling and drying of the global climate caused two lineages burseraceaw the Protieae to move bkrseraceae, one towards the Old World tropics and another towards South America.
This is consistent with the hypothesis that that the common ancestor of Protium fragrans and all other New World Protieae lived in the New World tropics before the lineage ever arrived in the Amazon and began its spectacular radiation of over species. All other Central American and Caribbean Protium including the other four species that live in Cuba occur in derived lineages of the clade Fig.
The trajectory of Bursera tells a very different tamilia. Although the resolution of certain clades is still vague, it was possible to determine that the islands were colonized from Central America by two distinct lineages, and that most species are restricted endemics that radiated during the Middle Miocene to Pliocene De-Nova et al.
It is important to be very cautious when making sweeping interpretations of biogeographic history when one does not have a comprehensive sample of all of the taxa including extinct species. For example, if we did not have samples of Protiumfragrans in the phylogeny, we would conclude that the basal lineage Icicopsis Engl.
Recent collections made in that region are being incorporated into a more complete molecular phylogeny Fine et al. In Burseraa broad sampling was important to determine the relationships of the Antillean species with their relatives in mainland Central and South America.
It would be impossible to obtain an understanding of the evolutionary relationships of a region like the Antilles without both a molecular phylogeny and a thorough study of herbarium and living material.
For the Burseraceae in general, most key geographic gaps are in the Malesian region, especially Borneo, the uplands of New Guinea, the Philippines, Vietnam and neighboring countries.
As for key taxa, during the same period we were finally able to collect and sample several key taxa for the first time: Another challenge is posed by the large number of undescribed species in some genera and in some geographic regions. Many of the new taxa worldwide are not yet represented by material adequate for publishing them. The Burseraceae comprise an excellent model for studying Amazonia because of its high diversity, ecological importance, diversity of habitats occupied, and habitat specificity.
The family includes over species in the Amazon, including at least 65 species in the Colombian Amazon. In their ecological importance, the Burseraceae are on a par with all of the great families of trees in Amazonia and the Guianas, but the manner in which this importance is achieved differs from one region to another. Overall, the Burseraceae score somewhat higher in relative density than in relative diversity number of species and far higher in relative density than in relative “dominance” basal areaas they tend to be small to medium-sized trees.
In eastern Amazonia and the Guianas, the importance of the Burseraceae is due primarily to their great numbers.
In the western part, relative density is far lower but relative diversity far higher. In central Amazonia, the family is strikingly important under both these criteria.
In the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments project in Central Amazonia, the family was 2nd in relative diversity, with 49 species, and Protium was the most speciose genus 35 spp. The family is ecologically versatile overall, but individual species tend to show habitat preferences and a number are habitat specialists, although few species of Burseraceae are found as habitat specialists in flooded, poorly-drained or extremely poor soils; those that do are often restricted geographically.
On 28 plots of 0. Almost three quarters of the 35 species investigated in the Peruvian Amazon by Fine et al. Molecular-based Phylogeny and Taxonomic Questions in Protieae.
Generic limits and many relationships within Protieae historically have proven difficult to resolve based on morphology alone e. Eu – Icica excepted: Crepidospermum and Tetragastris are thus far both monophyletic but nested within Protiumso as it stands the tribe may end up being a single genus of ca. The molecular-based phylogeny has also contributed to the circumscription of these sections, including unusual taxa that were misplaced on first examination.
For example, Protium fragrans from Cuba falls neatly within a well-supported Icicopsis clade, as originally proposed by Swart and, similarly, the Guianas endemic P. Bursetaceae the large cluster of Protium species towards the top of Figure 2 that are unassigned to sections, it includes some well-supported groups that are united by morphological characters and thus could become new named sections in the future. For example, most if not all of the clade that includes Protium altsonii Sandwith, P.
One issue that will be helped by molecular studies at infra- specific rank is the question of whether one or burseracea clusters of names that have been synonymized are in fact complexes of closely related species; these include Protium decandrum Aubl. An eternal question in Amazonian botany is which of the taxa we believe to be famlia endemics or disjuncts are in fact artifacts of collecting; examples that appear to be disjunct between C or W Amazonia and the Guianas include Protiumkrukovii Swart, P.
Protium heptaphyllum – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
While Bursera burseaceae notorious for hybridizing e. Marchand and the mostly Cerrado specialist P. Finally, several groups present what have been intractable challenges among the Amazonian Burseraceae; the molecular-based phylogeny will aid in the untangling of species complexes and synonomy questions, but all require expanded botanical exploration.
Icicopsisan object of current revision, is both variable and repetitive vegetatively while the fruits rarely help; it is possible that hair types and surface features like lenticels will yield useful keys.
Second, Protium heptaphyllum is a highly variable, widespread species ranging from Costa Rica to S Brazil that needs to be the subject of at least a master’s thesis using morphometrics and molecular systematics. Finally, the species of Protium sect. Sarcoprotium can be distinguished rather easily with flowers present, or even with a petal or two persisting on the developing fruits, but sterile or with just fruits they are very difficult to separate.
Surveying multiple populations of a species complex across its geographic range and assessing genetic variation within and between populations and comparing it to the amount of variation between morphologically distinct and discrete species is one way to begin to resolve these questions using genetic data.
An interesting application of molecular-based phylogenies is using sister-taxa relationships to infer speciation mechanisms. Alternatively, sister taxa can have parapatric ranges and specialize in different habitat types, indicating a very different mechanism Moritz et al.
In burseracese Protieae, Fine et al. The white-sand specialists Protiumreticulatum Engl. Fine are geographically separated and likely are a result of allopatric speciation between different white-sand areas, while P.
Future studies will quantify the level of gene flow that crosses habitat boundaries in order to directly test whether speciation-with-gene flow is occurring within P. Three additional groups of species merit similar busreraceae. As noted, one Protium clade consists possibly exclusively of species with large, globose fruits that at burssraceae are green without and white within, suggesting dispersal by bats; the implication is that bat dispersal may have arisen only once or at most a few times in Protium.
Very few Neotropical Burseraceae are mostly or exclusively floodplain species e. Finally, the surprising number of Andean Protium species, most of them recently discovered and still undescribed, invite investigation as to whether colonization of montane habitats has occurred multiple times and relatively recently.
Our rapidly improving understanding of Burseraceae systematics and biogeography, combined with the family’s diversity, ecological importance, and habitat specialization in the Amazon region, make it an excellent group for studying the Amazon flora.
Diversification in the family occurs via multiple mechanisms, even within some clades, but in Amazonia, in the absence of obvious barriers to genetic exchange, divergence via habitat shifts is likely to be more prevalent than in other regions. Our results to date are compatible with the scenario of the Amazon flora as relatively young, with groups like the Burseraceae undergoing relatively recent and rapid speciation. It is impossible to decipher an Amazonian group without a global grasp of the group, particularly in adjacent floras.
Thorough sampling is absolutely essential, as is a rigorous taxonomic foundation, and taxonomic revisions should be complemented by ecological and physiological studies.
This sets the stage for the revealing analyses that can be conducted using molecular phylogenies.