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More than 2, medievalists from more than 60 countries participated in the 25th annual International Medieval Congress IMC from July Texts, indeed, are at the same time an idea and a form. The latter is the result of a combination of inherited social uses and specific intentions by the various actors involved in transmitting the text as idea. This process begins with the authors, continues to the craftsmen parchment and paper makers, copyists and chancery clerks, painters and illuminators, sculptors and weavers, booksellers… and then on to possessors, readers, archives and libraries.
All textual artefacts are concerned: What scholars can study nowadays is however only one specific, if not final, state of those manuscripts, exercicee and ddt, from which they seek to xxml the respective intents of the actors.
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Paris, Archives Nationales, JJfol. Medieval library catalogues started including dictiones probatoriae or secundo folio as identifiers of a given manuscript as object rather than as the bearer of a text; additional information on the physical appearance could rxercice be indicated size of the script, illumination, …. These are early examples of an awareness of material aspects in textual artefacts. By the 19 th century it found its way into the bibliographic descriptions, either in a scholarly environment or in auction and sales catalogues as part of a bibliophilic interest.
When doing editorial work, scholars may take the materiality of the text into account and either decide to discard their observations or communicate them to the user.
Discussions of former editions and practices are welcome, as well as proposals discussing the current developments in scholarly editions. This could include reflections on the tensions resulting from tight schedules due to fixed-term contracts and the ideal of exhaustive material description and analysis. The connection between text and object is reflected by specific requirements for the written object in the fields of diplomatics, epigraphy, codicology layout, material structureart history iconography, decorationand palaeography script types, abbreviations, script size and degree of formality.
Recurrent patterns in book production have already been identified, such as books of hours and prayers for lay people being small in size, illustrated, and written in long lines, or genealogies and universal histories being written in scroll format in order to stress the continuity. There are also illuminators working mainly in the production of one or two literary genres, for whom it is not always possible to ascertained if it is a consequence of being hired by one librarian or if they specialized into specific iconographic types.
Illuminated charters as a category may also be connected with specific conditions in their creation. In this regard, cultural divide and contact zones Beneventan, Wisigothic vs. Medieval autographs form a cross-genre domain, in which the intervention of the author may provide modern scholars with additional information.
Yet, only a reciprocal analysis of text and handwriting in their context should allow the expertise of autography. Theoretical proposals and case studies demonstrating how material here mainly palaeographic and textual inquiries interact are welcome. Papers could focus on new results within these known patterns or new connections between text and materiality.
Fragments are a challenging form to study manuscripts both as texts and objects. Proposals may present innovative tools and projects, as well as scholarly research based on virtual or physical reconstruction of dismembered or fragmentary text objects. The organizers particularly welcome proposals dealing with the fragment as source for the broader historical context e.
The material analysis is not a new field any more. Imaging techniques available for manuscript research include those based on physicochemical properties multispectral, X-ray fluorescence, etc.
Xl technological advances now exrcice a better coordination of textual studies,imaging and physicochemical research. Examples include the Archimedes palimpsest, the manuscripts from Mount Sinai or the rolls from Herculanum and Ein Gedi.
For this session we expect proposals illustrating how material analyses or imaging techniques can reveal hidden or illegible text layers and therefore have a direct impact on our understanding of the textual content and its history.
Papers of 20 minutes in length are invited. To propose a paper, please send a brief abstract words max to. Compte-rendu de fin de projetoctobre31 p.
ORIFLAMMS addresses a broad range of issues, ranging from epistemology and science to technology, industry and society, through the analysis of writing systems, their evolution in the long period of the Middle Ages, and their variation according to the production context daily-life writings, diplomatic and book scripts and language.
It also establishes a Reference corpus, a formal ontology of character forms, and a new way of analyzing graphic structures of scripts in order to move from a linear-textual approach to a visual one. This will, in turn, allow new research results for linguists, historians and industry researchers in computer vision. The large scope of this project give new clues to understand the evolution of scripts in a multilingual environment and to develop technologies to analyze handwritten texts.
The deliverables can also be used by anthropologists, pedagogy and neuroscience researchers to enhance their understandings of scriptural processes.
The research on medieval scripts and their variation according to context and language required a profound collaboration between the different partners. Firstly, they established a Reference corpus, which is larger and more diverse than the actual standard ones. It represents the different writing situations in the Middle Age: Two different methods were implemented.
The first one consists in the coding of written characters and a learning-free image analysis; it is implemented in the open source software that the project consortium published. The second one is based on artificial intelligence and machine learning: Thirdly, the human experts validated and analyzed the results provided by automated processes, in order to measure the accuracy of machines and nourish the historical study.
The Oriflamms project produced six sorts of outputs: The Reference corpus outmatches the actual standard corpuses by its size and its diversity.
It is published corrigg an interoperable format https: The involved teams enhanced already existing software, but also published an open source software https: The alignments provided by the artificial intelligence mechanisms are the best ones actually published and provide the ground-truth to train new machines and progress towards handwritten text recognition for medieval scripts.
During this research project, the alignments already allowed for new insights in the dtv of letter shapes and their evolution. At the same time, the different teams reflected on their experiences of cross-disciplinary works and organized international seminars which identified crucial factors for a successful partnership identifying and defining the roles of partners, assessing their expertise, trust building mechanisms.
The study of word cogrig was performed and published in multi-authors articles at the crossroads of linguistics and palaeography. In Image analysis, several papers have demonstrated the new advances in text-image alignment learning free as well as with artificial intelligence. Several research papers give our conclusions on the methodology of cross-disciplinary research and its outcomes in the respective communities.
The research project Oriflamms is a fundamental research, linked to an experimental software development. The project started in February for a months duration.
Structure et convention de nommage. Pour le scriptorium de Fontenay, le graphique ci-dessous montre une courbe de proportion fortement erratique. La confrontation des deux corpus permet de tirer une conclusion: La codicologie quantitative travaille avec la proportion: Gumbert, la seconde par G. Les proportions et variances respectives sont les suivantes: Il est malheureusement difficile de savoir sur quoi se fondent exactement ces statistiques.
Forty-three studies in bibliography presented to Prof. Wytze Hellinga on the occasion of his retirement from the chair of neophilology in the University of Amsterdam at the end of the yearAmsterdam,p. Le code source se trouve sur GitHub [ https: Avec la version 0.
Toutes remarques, critiques et sugggestions seront les bienvenues. Nos travaux se sont inscrits dans deux domaines applicatifs particuliers: Et voici la feuille de style.
The task to be evaluated in the present competition is the classification exercicee images of Latin Scripts, from handwritten books dated C. The organizers provide a training data-set consisting in images of well exdrcice script types.
The complete data-set is thereafter named CLaMM: We propose two possible tasks: Participants are expected to provide the executable files, capable of producing the results of steps 1 and 2 of the respective tasks according to the format that is described in section 2.
Digital libraries from Cultural Heritage institutions contain literally ten-thousands of digitized manuscripts of the European Middle Ages. This has been stated for the modern handwriting styles . The mxl millennium extending from C. The participants of this competition will get the only available reference data-set covering the European Middle Age and tagged as regards script types and production date. In real-life xmll and beyond the challenges of material degradations, segmentation, etc.
In this regard, classification of scripts addresses the subjectivity of the human mind, so that, as in art history, all attributions remain subject to debate and discussion. In this competition, in task 1 the training data-set and the test data-set encompass well defined script types, in order to make the evaluation possible.
In task 2, the test data-set also encompasses mixed script types, which illustrates evolution of Latin scripts. The present competition on the Classification of Medieval Handwritings in Latin Script is related but differs from:.
The latter topic is the closest and has been dealt with by numerous competitions and publications —. The results are published in , . Further research has been conducted on a theoretical level by one of the organizers and several teams in Computer Science—. Nevertheless none of the teams had access to the labelled data-set and the latter has not been made available anywhere. Both training and test data-sets consists of grey-level images in TIFF format at dpi, picturing a x mm part of a manuscript.
The training set consists of images. The test set consists of images for task 1, and images for task 2. The image collection used for the competition is mainly based on the collection of images from the French catalogues of dated and datable manuscripts—, increased with the on-line documentation from the BVMM http: The images of the training set are tagged according to 12 labels.
The division of scripts is based on morphological differences and allographs, as defined in standard works on Latin scripts , . For each task, two rankings will be done. The first one will be based on the average global accuracy, the second based on the symmetrical distance matrix.
The ranking will be based on the average accuracy. As far as the distance matrix is concerned, the evaluation will be done on the average intraclasse distance that will yield to the second ranking.