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Su existencia es un indicio claro de las ansias de reforma. Algunos apresurados la engloban con el luteranismo, pero Erasmo quiere continuar ocupando un lugar intermedio.

Ahora bien, en los momentos en que estalla la crisis no suelen respetarse -ni entenderse- las posiciones intermedias, las que quieren conservar lo mejor de ambos bandos. Por el contrario, la consideraremos como el entretejido de diversos factores que no deben ser condenados. Es el catalizador de una crisis que tiene amplios alcances: No rechaza esa estructura: Bataillon examina casos concretos en auxilio de sus aseveraciones: Luis de Granada, Fr.

Juan de la Cruz, etc. Pertenece a la Penguin Books. Trevelyan ha de tener la historia. Esta sensibilidad, don raro, es su cualidad saliente. This place was a formative influence: His great-uncle was Thomas Babington Macaulay, by turns a poet, historian, colonial administrator, and British politician. And his elder brother Sir Charles Philips Trevelyan, third baronet, was secretary of education in the Labour governments of and This was a privileged background, in which the aristocracies of birth and talent converged, and it gave Trevelyan the social confidence and financial security to form his opinions and express his views with fearless independence.

From an early age, and as befitted someone bearing his middle name, Trevelyan resolved to write history in the grand manner of his great-uncle. History, Trevelyan believed, was an essential element in the public culture of any civilized nation, and he determined to uphold his family tradition by writing that history for his own day.

In this endeavour he was astonishingly successful, as the prodigious sales of his books gave him a cultural authority unrivalled among his generation of historians. In conformity with family precedent, Trevelyan was educated at Harrow School, where Winston Churchill was a near contemporary.

Inand again following in the family footsteps, he went up to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he read history. He never indulged in the homosexual relations that became widespread for a time among some Apostles, but he did absorb their culture of radical agnosticism.

Nevertheless, he remained all his life loyal to a secular version of Christian ethics: In he obtained a first in the historical tripos, and soon after he was elected a fellow of Trinity. It was a zestful work of confident youth, and the jauntiness of the prose sometimes reads like a parody of Macaulay. At this time he was seen as the coming man among young Cambridge historians, and his vigorous, iconoclastic lectures attracted a large undergraduate following.

But he found the hypercritical atmosphere of the university inimical to his own more spacious and creative impulses, and he was outraged when in J.

Bury denounced literary history in his inaugural lecture as regius professor. Trevelyan promptly resigned his Trinity fellowship, and set off for London. As he interpreted it, the seventeenth century witnessed fundamental advances in religious toleration and parliamentary freedom, the forces of Catholic despotism were vanquished, and Great Britain gradually evolved towards the status of a world power.

In the same year Trevelyan married Janet Penrose Ward d. The marriage was happy and fulfilling, not least because Janet Trevelyan was herself a clever and public-spirited woman. She was the author of several works of history and biography, and in she was made CH in recognition of her work for the preservation of play centres for children in London.

His first child, Mary Caroline —inherited her share of the family gifts, pride, and interests, and her many publications included William III and the Defence of Holland, —73a biography of Wordsworth 2 vols.

In Mary Trevelyan married John Richard Humpidge Moorman, a Church of England clergyman with interests in ecclesiastical history, who eventually became bishop of Ripon. He settled down in Cheyne Gardens in Chelsea, and threw himself into the literary and political life of the metropolis.

Buxton he edited a progressive journal entitled the Independent Review. But his great work was his Garibaldi trilogy —11which established his reputation as the outstanding literary historian of his generation.

It depicted Garibaldi as a Carlylean hero—poet, patriot, and man of action—whose inspired leadership created the Italian nation. For Trevelyan, Garibaldi was the champion of freedom, progress, and tolerance, who vanquished the despotism, reaction, and obscurantism of the Austrian empire and the Neapolitan monarchy. In the timing of this trilogy Trevelyan was exceptionally lucky, for the publication of the Garibaldi books almost exactly coincided with the high noon of Edwardian Liberalism.


The trilogy also marked a high peak of imaginative intensity and creative endeavour which their author was never quite to scale again. He had now established himself as the master of the two forms of writing about the past which held the field when he was growing up, and to which he devoted the remainder of his working life: His next book was a life of John Brightanother Liberal hero who was a high-minded internationalist and campaigner for peace, and a central figure in the making of Victorian England.

He was then invited to write and believed he had been born to write the biography of the second Earl Grey—whig hero, architect of the Great Reform Act, and another Northumberland patrician.

But he had completed only three chapters when the pattern of his own life was changed abruptly. Late in he visited Serbia, with the aim of strengthening the resistance to the central powers, and in March he went on a lecture tour to the United States, putting the British case.

His defective eyesight meant he was unfit for military service, but he was determined to join up somehow, and in the autumn of he became commandant of the first British Red Cross ambulance unit to be sent to Italy. For three and a half years he served on the mountainous front north-east of Venice, between the rivers Isonzo and Piave, transporting wounded soldiers to hospitals behind the lines.

He was conspicuously brave, and insisted on sharing with his drivers the most dangerous tasks under fire. Like many gifted members of the Liberal generation to which he belonged, Trevelyan found the First World War a devastating experience. The easy certainties and confident hopes of the pre era had turned to dust, the Liberal Party was collapsing, and the European prospect seemed bleak.

What, under such changed circumstances, was the role of the public teacher and national historian, which were his self-appointed tasks? Initially, there was some unfinished business which he had to complete.

Lord Grey of the Reform Bill was his last piece of partisan whiggery, and Manin and the Venetian Revolution of was his final engagement with Italian history. Meanwhile, Trevelyan and his family had left London for semi-rural Berkhamsted. But this did not imply a withdrawal from public life: This took a less partisan view of politics than his earlier writings, and accepted that it was not only the whigs, but also the tories, who had contributed to the development of the nation.

This more consensual approach to the national past reached a fuller flowering in his History of Englandthe first single-volume survey since J.

Trevelyan had resolved to write such a book during the First World War as a celebration of, and thank-offering to, the English people. The book sold exceptionally well, and provided the definitive account of the English past for the inter-war generation and beyond.

Like Trevelyan, Stanley Baldwin was a Harrow School and Trinity College alumnus; like Trevelyan, he believed in the beauty and regenerative values of the countryside; and like Trevelyan, he thought that different classes of English men and women should learn again to live in peace and harmony with each other.

By the mids Trevelyan had become a committed Baldwinite tory, and he was convinced that Macaulay would have taken the same view.

Trevelyan returned in triumph to his Trinity fellowship, and took up residence at Garden Corner, 23 West Road, where he lived for the rest of his life. He was a conscientious lecturer, supervised a clutch of research students, including J. Brock, and was chairman of the history faculty board from to At about the same time that he returned to Cambridge, Trevelyan inherited from a distant relative a house and small estate at Hallington in Northumberland, where he spent his university vacations and did much of his writing.

The death of both his parents in prompted him to write Sir George Otto Trevelyan: He had already, inbeen elected a fellow of the British Academy, but he subsequently declined to be president because he had more important and creative things to do. His final work in this mode was The English Revolution, —89published to mark the th anniversary of the events it described, and a sort of retrospective prelude to England under Queen Anne.

For him the true glory of lay in its tolerant moderation, and in its long-lasting and beneficent effects. These feelings also informed his last biography, Grey of Fallodonan elegiac evocation of the British foreign secretary —16who was another Northumberland landowner and nature-lover, and a firm upholder of decent standards in public life.


Trevelyan had successfully adjusted to the changed and less propitious circumstances of the inter-war years, but he did not find the s an easy decade. The first of these developments undermined his belief that Italy was a land of liberty, while the second vindicated his view that the treaty of Versailles had been unduly harsh. Internationally, as well as domestically, he supported the national governments of Baldwin and Chamberlain, believing in the virtues of appeasement, accompanied by rearmament—the very policies adopted by Sir Edward Grey before the First World War.

But he had little doubt that another war with Germany would come, and that whatever the result, a second such conflict in his lifetime would spell the end of the world as he had known it.

Erasmo y España, estudios sobre la historia espiritual del siglo XVI

In he withdrew his name from the final short list for the governor-generalship of Canada. A year later he became high steward of Cambridge, as Macaulay had been before him; in he etasmo elected president of the Historical Association; in he was elected FRS; and in he was president of the English Association. When he reached the age of seventy, the fellows of Trinity unanimously extended his term of office for a further five years.

Once again, the timing was just right.

Written in the darkest years he had known, he poured out his patriotic feelings for what seemed to him the mortally endangered fabric of English life: Out of his wartime sense of despair and foreboding, he created his final historical masterpiece of public enlightenment, the substantial royalties from which he donated to the golden jubilee appeal of the National Trust.

Towards the end of his time as master of Trinity, Trevelyan published An Autobiography and other Essaysin which he wrote very guardedly about his inner life, and rather inadequately about his work, his art, and his craft. These venerable admissions seemed to bear out the earlier attacks that had been obliquely mounted on Trevelyan by Herbert Butterfield in The Whig Interpretation of History and by Lewis Namier in his revisionist that is, anti-whig work h the reign of George III.

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And they encouraged a later generation of militant conservative empiricists, led by G. For he believed passionately in the importance of primary research, and the Garibaldi books had been much praised for their innovative use of archival material in a work of recent history.

He was a great supporter of the Institute of Historical Research in London, and exceptionally generous in his encouragement of younger scholars. For all his early whig and liberal biases, there is no evidence that Trevelyan knowingly distorted historical evidence to support the case he wanted to make. He constantly insisted on the unlikeness of past worlds to the present, and he was much more sympathetic to the power and importance of religion than he is sometimes given credit for.

In his imaginative insight and eloquent reconstruction of past people and events he was unrivalled among historians of his generation, and his sense of the transience and tragedy of life gives his best writing a poetic power and a haunting resonance that have never been equalled since. He was chancellor of Durham University from toand he was presented with a Festschrift, Studies in Social Historyedited by J. On his eightieth birthday an appeal was launched in The Times to found lectures in his honour at Cambridge University.

The first Trevelyan lectures were given inat which Trevelyan himself made one of his last public appearances. Three years later, in the company of Churchill, he was made a companion of literature.

Throughout his long life Trevelyan drove himself exceptionally hard in pursuit of his chosen calling. His personality was unwarmed by self-indulgence, he cared little about his dress or appearance, and he was wholly devoid of small talk. He was tall, with a wiry frame and austere features, and he enjoyed a well-merited reputation as a tireless walker. He spoke his mind with forthright independence, and to all except his closest friends he could be an intimidating figure. But his youthful ferocity gradually mellowed into a kind of noble grandeur—a greatness of character that matched the greatness of his achievement.

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